Comparison of indicators by Member States
In this section, all five previously analysed indicators are compared in terms of Member State contributions (see the figure below). Overall, due to the importance of their economies or to their particularly large ICT Sectors or strong ICT R&D intensities, only eight countries play significant roles in both ICT production and ICT R&D in the EU according to this particular selection of indicators. This does not mean that important ICT activities do not take place in other Member States but that a size effect makes these particular Member States stand out. A finer regional analysis would most certainly identify important ICT regions in other Member States.
These eight countries are analysed individually in this section. The other countries are grouped into other older MS and newer MS.
Unsurprisingly, the fact that emerges most clearly is the dominance of four major economies (France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom) in all five indicators. There are some exceptions (e.g., Finland in ICT BERD or Spain in ICT GBAORD) but these four countries together systematically contributed 50-60% in all indicators.
Other interesting facts (all related to 2009) can be summarized as follows:
- A comparison of ICT BERD (private funding) and ICT GBAORD (public funding) data reveals that while Finland and France contributed almost 30% to the total EU ICT BERD, their cumulative share in ICT GBAORD was only 13%. This is in contrast to Spain which contributed only 4% to BERD but 11% to GBAORD.
- Finland produced only 2% of total EU ICT Value Added and employed only 2% of the total EU ICT sector employees, but invested 11% of total EU ICT BERD. Sweden was in a similar position, producing and employing 3% but investing 8%.
- The twelve newer Member States together produced 8% of total EU ICT Value Added. For this, they needed only 2% of total EU ICT BERD but had to employ 16% of the total EU ICT sector workforce. The share of ICT R&D Personnel working (6%), however, did not correspond to this relatively high 16% share.
- The contribution of Germany was very consistent across all five indicators (always between 17 and 23%). Similarly consistent patterns can be seen in Italy (always between 9 and 12%), the United Kingdom (always between 12 and 17%) and in the group of other older Member States (always between 9 and 15%).
Comparison of Value Added, Employment, BERD, GBAORD and R&D personnel
by Member State (2009)
Source: Eurostat, elaborated by Ivie and JRC-IPTS [Download full image]